Classification and difference of microphones
Although strictly speaking microphone (scientific name microphone) can be divided into many categories according to different ways of working, but are now widely used in professional and amateur recording applications is the main dynamic microphone (dynamic) and a capacitor microphone (condenser).
We know that the microphone is caused by the air pressure change caused by the vibration of the diaphragm, which is similar to the "working" principle of our ears. Moving coil microphone diaphragm (in our eardrums) is located in the annular space between a cylindrical magnet and a soft, diaphragm connected with a suspended between two poles of the movable coil, the coil we often referred to as "the voice coil". The acoustic vibration diaphragm, the voice coil cutting circular cracks in the magnetic field in the movement, which induces a current and output.
The advantages of the moving coil microphone is of simple structure, low price, stable, durable, long service life, is widely used in a variety of recording situations. But because of its sensitivity is relatively low, the frequency response is wide enough (the best condition for the 40 Hz to 16 kHz, and ear average hearing limit of about 20Hz to 20kHz), so if moving coil microphone to record some frequency wider and more larger, the overtone of dynamic components of the sound source (such as pipe string band ensembles, etc.), it is somewhat powerless.
In a professional studio, a recording artist usually uses a condenser microphone more often. Capacitor microphone stands for "electrostatic capacity change type microphone". The core of the device is composed of a very light movable diaphragm plate and a fixed plate. This device is what we call "pole" or "capacitance box" ". When the polar head is subjected to the polarization voltage, the charge is generated on the two electrode plate. Acoustic vibration of the membrane (can move the plate), the charge will change, the end of the load resistance at both ends of the voltage, the formation of audio signals.
Condenser microphone with high sensitivity, frequency response is also very wide, or wider up to 20Hz to 20kHz, can meet the needs of the vast majority of professional recording. The disadvantage is that the environmental noise is more sensitive, the vibration of the film is relatively fragile, short life, so it is not suitable for outdoor use.
Due to the capacitor microphone's pole must be applied to the polarization voltage to work, so to use the condenser microphone must be provided to the power supply. Think of it, and how much trouble it would be if every microphone was connected to a power cord and an audio cable. In order to minimize the connection, people come up with "Power Phantom" approach. The so-called "phantom power" refers to the same cable in both audio signal and current, including the DC power supply voltage. In this way, we only need to connect an audio cable to get both the polarization voltage and the audio signal.
Most large diaphragm condenser microphone, such as takstar SM-1A, SM-1B etc. need 48V phantom power supply, so the most professional mixer also have built-in 48V phantom power supply function. But some types of condenser microphone also has special phantom power supply voltage requirements, such as takstar GN-260, GN-270 etc., under voltage of 9V to 52V all can work